The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) was founded by Fabian Ware and is currently undertaking a project to re-engrave and spruce up by hand all the headstones that it looks after. For World War One alone that equates to nearly 1.3 million names engraved on either individual headstones or on memorials to those who died but who have no known grave.
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First British Shots of WW1 Life in the Infantry Infantry weapons in World War One Lee Enfield Rifle The Vickers Machine Gun Machine Guns The Livens Flame Projector Boy Soldiers Cavalry and World War One John 'Galloping Jack' Seely Tanks and World War One The Trenches Life in the Trenches Memories from the trenches Soldiers food in the trenches Booty and World War One Brothels and the Western Front Gas masks in World War One Gas Attack in World War One Poison Gas and World War One Artillery and World War One Animals in World War One Christmas 1914 and World War One Christmas 1915 World War One New Year and World War One Mutiny in the French Army World War One executions Padres in World War One Talbot House Poperinge and World War One Nieuwport in 2000
The Battle of Mons The First Battle of the Marne The Battle of Tannenberg The Battle of Masurian Lakes The Battle of Ypres Ypres and World War One Battles of the Ypres Salient Hill 60 Hill 62 The Battle of Mount Sorrel Polygon Wood The Battle of Loos Gallipoli The Battle of Verdun Falkenhayn and the Battle of Verdun The Battle of the Somme Beaumont-Hamel The Battle of Flers The Battle of Fromelles Delville Wood The Nivelle Offensive The Second Battle of the Aisne The Battle of Vimy Ridge Vimy Ridge Tunnels First Bullecourt Second Bullecourt The Battle of Cambrai The Battle for Messines Ridge The Battle of Passchendaele The Battle of Caporetto The Brusilov Offensive The German Spring Offensive of 1918 The Battle of Lys The Battle of Amiens The Battle of Belleau Wood The Battle of Vittorio Veneto
Russia of Alexander III Alexander III Russification Karl Marx Political Views in Russia Revolutionary Ideology Socialist Revolutionaries Populism Julius Martov George Plekhanov Lev Kamenev Gregory Zinoviev Nicolai Bukharin The Russian Church Russia and Agriculture Nicholas and Alexandra The Bolsheviks The Mensheviks Gregory Rasputin The Russo Japanese War The 1905 Russian Revolution The October Manifesto Peter Stolypin The First Duma The Second Duma Russia and World War One Russia and War Russian Revolution - March 1917 The Provisional Government Alexander Kerensky Russian Revolution - November 1917 Vladimir Lenin The Bolsheviks in power The Cheka Felix Dzerzhinsky The Red Terror The Lockhart Plot Social Reforms of 1917 Bolshevik Land Reforms Political Reforms of 1919 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk The death of the Romanovs The Russian Civil War Leon Trotsky Permanent Revolution War Communism New Economic Policy Permanent Revolution Lavr Kornilov Alexander Kolchak Anton Denikin Russia 1918 to 1921 Joseph Stalin's Early Years Sergei Kirov Agricultural changes under Stalin from 1928 to 1935 The Great Famine Life in USSR under Stalin Rasputin The Provisional Government The Show Trials in the USSR The Purges in the USSR Russia Political Terms
Harold Alexander Juergen von Arnim Claude Auchinleck Feder von Bock Omar Bradley Wilhelm Canaris General Dietrich von Choltitz General Mark Clark Admiral Darlan Sholto Douglas Dwight Eisenhower Vice Admiral Frank Fletcher Admiral William Frederick Halsey Air Marshal Arthur Harris Erich Hoepner Lord John Gort Heinz Guderian Wilhelm Keitel Ewald von Kleist Gunther Kluge Wilhelm von Leeb Curtis LeMay Douglas MacArthur Erich von Manstein Erhard Milch Walther Model Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery Lord Louis Mountbatten Chester Nimitz Vice Admiral Jisaburo Ozawa George Patton Arthur Percival Charles Portal Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsay Neil Ritchie Erwin Rommel Gerd von Rundstedt General William 'Bill' Slim Admiral Raymond Spruance General Kurt Student General Alexander Vandegrift General Archibald Wavell Orde Wingate Isoroku Yamamoto General Tomoyuki Yamashita Georgy Zhukov
The Far East 1941 to 1945 Pearl Harbor 1941 Pearl Harbor and Midget Subs The Attack on Malaya by Japan The Fall of Hong Kong The Defence of Singapore The fall of Singapore Force Z and Singapore American Naval Power The Battle of Coral Sea Battle of Midway The Battle of Guadalcanal Australia at War The Battle of Saipan 1944 The Battle of the Philippine Sea Burma and World War Two The Retreat in Burma 1941 to 1942 The Battle of Kohima 1944 The Battle of Imphal 1944 The Race to Rangoon 1945 The Battle of Iwo Jima The Battle of Okinawa Kamikazes and World War Two The Fire Raids on Japan The Manhattan Project Hiroshima Enola Gay and Hiroshima The bombing of Nagasaki Operation Downfall Operation Olympic Operation Coronet The surrender of Japan Japanese-American families
The Prime Minister and British Politics The powers of the Prime Minister Limits to the powers of a Prime Minister Prime Ministers 1945 to 2002 The Cabinet The Crown and British Politics The Prime Minister and British Politics Prime Ministers 1945 to 2002 The Cabinet and British Politics The Crown and British Politics
Impact of World War One on the Weimar Republic Early Problems of Weimar Germany Friedrich Ebert Weimar Republic's Constitution Stab in the Back Legend The Freikorps and Weimar The German Workers Party Anton Drexler Dietrich Eckart Gottfried Feder Hermann Esser The Spartacists Karl Liebknecht Rosa Luxemburg Kapp Putsch Wolfgang Kapp Hyperinflation and Weimar Germany The Dawes Plan of 1924 Adolf Hitler 1918 to 1924 The Beer Hall Putsch of 1923 Mein Kampf Gustav Stresemann The Bamberg Conference of 1926 Gregor Strasser Otto Strasser Weimar Republic and the Great Depression The Young Plan of 1929 Heinrich Bruning Paul von Hindenburg Alfred Hugenberg The Harzburg Front of 1931 The Stennes Revolt of 1931 Weimar elections 1928 to 1932 The Dusseldorf Speech of 1932 Text of the Dusseldorf Speech of 1932 The Potempa Murder of 1932 The Rise of the Nazi Party The Communist Party and Weimar Germany
The 2004 Democrat Primaries Democrat National Convention Boston 2004 The Republican National Convention New York 2004 Main issues 2004 election John Edwards John Kerry America-2004-election Voting Patterns in the 2004 Election The 2004 Democrat Primaries Democrat National Convention Boston 2004 The Republican National Convention New York 2004 Main issues 2004 election Main issues 2004 election 2004 American Election Pressure Groups in America 527's and elections Granny D
The Romans arrived in Britain in 55 BC. The Roman Army had been fighting in Gaul (France) and the Britons had been helping the Gauls in an effort to defeat the Romans. The leader of the Roman Army in Gaul, Julius Caesar, decided that he had to teach the Britons a lesson for helping the Gauls - hence his invasion.
William the Conqueror should strictly be known as William I . William is credited with kick-starting England into the phase known as Medieval England; William was the victor at the Battle of Hastings; he introduced modern castle building techniques into Medieval England and by his death in 1087, he had financially tied down many people with the Domesday Book.
Medieval Cathedrals were the most obvious sign of the wealth of the Church in Medieval England. Huge cathedrals were found principally at Canterbury and York, and in major cities such as Lincoln, Worcester, and Chichester. The cost of these buildings was vast - but the money to pay for these huge buildings came from the people via the many payments they had to make to the Roman Catholic Church in Medieval times.
The farming year in Medieval England was clearly shaped around the weather. At certain times of the year, certain things had to be done by peasant farmers or crops would not have grown. Farming, in this sense, was controlled by the weather. Month Work that needed to be done Weather the farmer wanted January mending and making tools, repairing fences showers February carting manure and marl showers March ploughing and spreading manure dry, no severe frosts April spring sowing of seeds, harrowing showers and sunshine May digging ditches, first ploughing of fallow fields showers and sunshine June hay making, second ploughing of fallow field, sheep-shearing dry weather July hay making, sheep-shearing, weeding of crops dry early, showers later August Harvesting warm, dry weather September threshing, ploughing and pruning fruit trees showers October Last ploughing of the year dry, no severe frosts November collecting acorns for pigs showers and sunshine December Mending and making tools, killing animals showers and sunshine Marl = a limy clay used as manure in Medieval England Frosts were a major worry for Medieval peasants as just one severe frost in the growing season could kill off your crop.
Royal Coats of Arms were first linked to Richard I (1189 to 1199). Richard's coat of arms consisted of three gold lions (guardant) on a red shield. This coat of arms was simply known as 'England'. This format has been on all royal coats of arms since his reign and was used unchanged by John (1199 to 1216), Henry III (1216 to 1272), Edward I (1272 to 1307) and Edward II (1307 to 1327).
Hadrian's Wall was built on the orders of the Emperor Hadrian. The primary function of Hadrian's Wall was to keep out the Picts. The Roman Army had advanced into north England but attacks by the Picts made life difficult for them. Hadrian's Wall was started in AD 122 and it remains a remarkable piece of engineering in the environment it was built in.
Farming dominated the lives of most Medieval people. Many peasants in Medieval England worked the land and, as a result, farming was critically important to a peasant family in Medieval England. Most people lived in villages where there was plenty of land for farming. Medieval towns were small but still needed the food produced by surrounding villages.
Gothic church architecture in Medieval England developed from Norman architecture. 'Gothic architecture' is the term used to describe building styles between 1200 to 1500. Such a large time span meant that a number of styles developed within Gothic architecture and it is common to divide these styles into three sections.
Cambridge University seems to have developed in numbers, and therefore the requirement for colleges, as a result of rivalry between students and towns people in Oxford. The first college at Cambridge was actually founded by Walter de Merton - who founded Merton College at Oxford. It seems that this college at Cambridge, called Pythagoras Hall, was created as Walter anticipated students from Oxford moving elsewhere because of the trouble between students and others in Oxford.